Witness testimonies in arbitration are paramount, bringing personal narratives and expert perspectives to life beyond contracts and documents. These testimonies can significantly influence a party’s position: well-presented testimonies strengthen a case, while any lapse in preparation or inconsistencies can undermine it. In this tenth instalment of our “Understanding Arbitration: A Guide for Businesses” series, we offer guidance on preparing, presenting, and challenging witness testimonies to optimise their impact for a favourable outcome.

The Significance of Witness Testimonies in Arbitration

Witness testimonies clarify disputes by detailing the events that support arguments and ensuring that each party has a reasonable or full chance to present its case. Their roles include:

a. Clarifying Facts: Witnesses give the tribunal a detailed recollection of events, supporting a party’s case from their perspectives.

b. Reinforcing Evidence: Testimonies reinforce (or corroborate) other pieces of evidence or additional testimonies, which can influence the tribunal’s valuation of the evidence.

c. Evaluating Trustworthiness: The arbitral tribunal’s observation of the witness’s consistency and demeanour enables it to gauge the reliability of shared information.

d. Insights from Expert Witnesses: Expert witnesses explain the dispute’s technicalities with their specialised knowledge when called upon.

e. Promoting Fair Hearings: Ensuring each party can voice its side of the story is critical for balanced decision-making and underscores the tribunal’s due process mandate.

The Two Types of Witnesses: Factual & Expert

Witnesses in arbitration broadly fall into two categories (i.e., factual or expert), each offering distinct contributions:

1. Nature of Testimony:

a. Factual Witnesses recount direct experiences or specific events they’ve observed. Their accounts give the tribunal a detailed understanding of the events that led to the dispute.

b. Expert Witnesses: Rather than recounting events, these individuals offer specialist opinions based on their professional expertise. They break down complex or specialised topics into clear insights for the tribunal.

2. Requirement for Expertise:

a. Factual Witnesses draw from their direct experiences without needing specific qualifications.

b. Expert Witnesses are recognised for their credentials in a particular field. They offer insights and opinions that only a person with specific knowledge could provide.

3. Cross-examination:

a. Factual Witnesses might not always face cross-examination, especially if their account isn’t deemed material.

b. Expert Witnesses: Given the weight of their opinions, they often undergo rigorous cross-examination to validate their claims and insights.

4. Impact on the Case:

a. Factual Witnesses lay out the ground realities that help establish the fundamental events and facts of the case.

b. Expert Witnesses can significantly influence the tribunal’s view through their input, especially on matters outside general knowledge.

Preparing Your Witnesses

The strength of a party’s case often rests on the evidence it presents. Witness testimonies can aid the tribunal’s understanding, so selecting and prepping them is crucial:

1. Identifying the Ideal Witnesses: Consider who can best support your case and most significantly impact your arguments. Remember, the tribunal’s assessment of the witness’s credibility and the direct relevance of their testimony will heavily influence the case’s outcome.

2. Guidance and Briefing:

 a. Introduction to Arbitration: Not all witnesses are familiar with the arbitration process. Take the time to explain the proceedings, the roles of different participants, and what they can expect during their testimony. This step clarifies the process and helps them feel comfortable providing their testimony.

b. Civil vs. Common Law Considerations: The witness preparation approach may vary depending on the prevalent legal tradition of the parties involved. Common law jurisdictions typically permit in-depth witness briefings, ensuring a witness is well-prepared and confident. Conversely, civil law systems might be more restrained and extensive preparation could be viewed with scepticism.

Understanding these differences in international arbitrations is vital, particularly when both traditions might influence the proceedings. The IBA Rules on the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration provide a helpful framework in such contexts, offering harmonised procedures that respect civil and common law practices.

c. The Importance of Honesty: Preparation is essential, especially for the rigours of cross-examination – as explained in greater detail below. Any discrepancies can weaken the position of the party the witness represents.

3. Anticipating Difficult Moments

A well-prepared witness should be intimately familiar with their account and poised for the challenges of cross-examination. This phase can entail difficult and probing questions. Practice sessions can prove invaluable, offering witnesses a chance to familiarise themselves with potential lines of questioning. The witness needs to respond confidently and factually. When faced with uncertainty, acknowledging it is more prudent than venturing a guess.

Presenting Witness Testimonies Effectively

1. Examination-in-chief

Effective examination-in-chief is built on clear and direct questioning that highlights the essential elements of your case. Witness statements play a foundational role, and their live examination further complements their importance. While it’s tempting to use leading questions, it’s crucial to avoid them, as they can inadvertently guide a witness towards a particular answer – weakening its impact. Focusing on concise and open-ended questions that reinforce your case ensures the tribunal understands the significance of the testimony.

2. Synchronising with Supplementary Evidence

A witness’s account’s credibility often increases when it aligns with additional evidence. Whenever a witness cites other evidence, it must be ready for presentation. You create a compelling and cohesive account for the tribunal by linking testimonies with pertinent documents. Additionally, visual aids, when introduced at the right moments, can amplify a testimony’s impact. These visuals can reinforce key points, making them more memorable. However, ensuring the visuals support the testimony rather than divert attention is vital.

How to Challenge the Opponent’s Witnesses

1. Cross-examination

Effective cross-examination begins by fleshing out inconsistencies in a witness’s account. In this phase, leading questions become a valuable tool. When used effectively, these questions help control the discussion, teasing out essential details or confining a witness to specific parts of their statement. However, always ensure your questions stay within the bounds of fairness, aiming to clarify rather than confront. The goal is to assist the tribunal in discerning the truth, often evident from the answers these questions elicit.

2. Assessing Witness Truthfulness

Considering a witness’s content and delivery during their testimony is crucial. Look for cues in speech and demeanour that might hint at a witness’s credibility. Techniques include assessing body language, tracking variations in tone, or noting any hesitations. By attentively observing, you can gauge whether a witness genuinely stands by their statements or if elements of uncertainty cloud their testimony.

Re-Examination: An Opportunity for Clarification

After cross-examination, the party that presented the witness can re-examine. This phase is crucial for several reasons:

a. Addressing New Issues: Re-examination allows you to address any unexpected issues or topics brought up during cross-examination, which may not have been covered during the examination-in-chief.

b. Clarifying Ambiguities: If the cross-examination introduced confusion or ambiguity, re-examination provides an opportunity to clarify these points, ensuring the tribunal fully understands the witness’s position.

c. Strengthening Testimony: Any perceived weaknesses or inconsistencies in the witness’s testimony exposed during cross-examination can be revisited, allowing you to reinforce the credibility and reliability of the witness.

d. Maintain Focus: Remember that re-examination is not an open-ended opportunity to revisit all aspects of the testimony. Focus on areas directly impacted by the cross-examination. Avoid leading questions, strive for clarity, and focus on the most critical points that need clarification or strengthening. While it is essential to clarify ambiguities, refrain from merely repeating previously made points unless necessary for emphasis. Ensure the witness understands the purpose of re-examination and can provide clear and concise answers.

Expert Witnesses: Maximising Their Impact

Expert witnesses bring specialised knowledge that can explain and clarify complicated areas of a dispute. A party’s timely and proper engagement of an expert can elevate its case, providing much-needed clarity where general understanding falls short.

1. When to engage an Expert: The key lies in discerning the cases that necessitate expert insight. Consider engaging an expert when a dispute touches on technical nuances, demands an interpretation of industry benchmarks, or needs a detailed assessment of potential damages.

2. The Power of Written Expertise: While an expert’s oral testimony offers invaluable insights, their written report often lays the groundwork. These reports detail the expert’s methods, findings, and conclusions, providing a well-structured narrative for all parties involved. A thorough report amplifies the expert’s credibility and ensures that their findings resonate effectively throughout the arbitration.

Addressing Challenges with Witnesses

Arbitration proceedings can sometimes face unexpected challenges related to witnesses. Addressing these promptly and efficiently can keep the process on track and ensure the tribunal receives essential information.

1. Addressing Sudden Witness Absences: When a witness is unexpectedly unavailable, maintaining the continuity of the proceedings becomes paramount – as delays increase costs. Video testimonies present a flexible solution, allowing real-time interactions. Naturally, reliable internet connections and accommodating different time zones must be considered.

If video testimonies prove impractical, rescheduling might be the most logical approach. While this may introduce short-term delays, it ensures a thorough and balanced cross-examination opportunity for both parties, safeguarding the due process requirements.

In all situations, liaising with all parties is essential, aiming for a mutually agreeable solution that champions efficiency and fairness.

2. Addressing Language and Cultural Differences: Language and cultural disparities can present challenges in international arbitrations, making clear communication paramount. Engaging skilled interpreters facilitates the accurate translation of words and the correct portrayal of underlying meanings. Additionally, understanding and respecting diverse cultural norms enhance the comprehension and relevance of testimonies. Witness preparation and briefings are vital to facilitate this, ensuring that statements are clear and have the desired impact on a broad audience.

Practical Tips and Best Practices

a. Witness Comfort and Confidence: Witnesses who feel supported and understood perform better. A simple walk-through of the procedure can often make a significant difference.

b. Maintaining Objectivity in Testimonies: While personal experiences shape every testimony, it is crucial to differentiate between fact and bias. Direct witnesses to present clear, factual accounts, allowing the tribunal to make an informed judgment without interference from subjective views.

c. Commitment to Ethical Standards: Preparing witnesses is necessary and beneficial, but there is a line between preparation and manipulation. Refrain from guiding witnesses towards specific answers or rehearsed narratives. Authenticity is not only ethical but also lends more credibility to the testimony.

Final Thoughts

Witness testimonies often decisively influence arbitration outcomes. Their credibility, clarity, and relevance can sway judgements, reinforcing the need for thorough preparation. However, while practice is paramount, adaptability remains equally vital. Circumstances can change, and unexpected challenges may emerge. Ensuring that legal teams and witnesses are well-prepared and adaptable to the ever-evolving nature of proceedings can make the difference in presenting a compelling case.


The insights presented in this blog post aim to furnish readers with a broad understanding of arbitration within the context of global business. This material does not purport to provide legal advice, but rather serves as an informative resource. Specific decisions concerning arbitration and its relevance should always be made in consultation with qualified legal experts. Given the intricate variations and legal implications of arbitration across different jurisdictions, it is paramount to collaborate with legal professionals well-acquainted with the precise legal framework pertinent to your circumstances.

If you find this content valuable and have further questions, or if you require guidance on the detailed aspects of arbitration, please feel free to reach out to our dedicated team at arbitration@broderickbozimo.com. We stand ready to guide you through these processes and address any areas of concern.

Isaiah Bozimo

Isaiah Bozimo


Israel Ekpo

Israel Ekpo


Share This