As legal practices adapt to the demands of modern business, Med-Arb and Arb-Med stand out as progressive options. These innovative hybrids merge the conciliatory aspects of mediation with the decisive nature of arbitration. Med-Arb starts with mediation and shifts to arbitration if a settlement eludes the parties. On the other hand, Arb-Med starts with arbitration, allowing for a mediation phase that could lead to a mutual agreement before a final decision. These processes are becoming more prevalent due to their efficiency in resolving conflicts swiftly and with less expense than conventional court proceedings.

This piece, the 28th part of our Understanding Arbitration: A Guide for Businesses series, sheds insights into the operational benefits and strategic application of Med-Arb and Arb-Med. It navigates the best-case scenarios for each approach and offers guidance on harnessing these methods to achieve effective dispute resolution.

Understanding Med-Arb and Arb-Med

Med-Arb Explained

Med-Arb combines mediation and arbitration into a single streamlined process. It starts with a mediation phase, where a neutral facilitator helps the parties seek a mutually acceptable resolution. If the parties reach an agreement, the mediator often drafts a settlement. However, if they fail to agree, the process transitions to arbitration. Here, an arbitrator, who can be the same person who served as mediator or a different one, listens to formal evidence and arguments before making a binding decision. This process allows for a seamless transition from a non-binding negotiation to a binding resolution.

Arb-Med Explained

Arb-Med flips the sequence of Med-Arb. The dispute first goes to arbitration, where evidence and testimonies are presented. The arbitrator then pauses the proceedings before rendering a decision and attempts mediation. Should the parties settle during mediation, it can render the arbitrator’s decision unnecessary. If not, the arbitrator finalises their decision. The key to Arb-Med is that the parties get a chance to settle after understanding the likely outcome of the arbitration, which can motivate a fair settlement.

Contrasting Med-Arb and Arb-Med

Choosing between Med-Arb and Arb-Med requires careful consideration of the dispute’s nature and the parties’ relationship. Med-Arb may be preferable in scenarios where there is a possibility for an amicable agreement but with a desire for a definitive resolution if negotiations come to an impasse. Conversely, Arb-Med might be suitable where parties value an early impartial assessment to guide a potentially more accessible mediation. Each method offers specific benefits and can be customised to suit the distinct requirements and dynamics of the disputing parties, ensuring that the resolution is fair and efficient.

Choosing Between Med-Arb and Arb-Med

Before choosing between Med-Arb and Arb-Med, parties should assess if the nature of the dispute might be more effectively addressed through mediation or arbitration alone. Med-Arb is generally suitable for parties aiming for a swift resolution while maintaining their business or personal relationships. It offers a final decision, as the transition from mediation to arbitration ensures an end to the dispute if a mutual agreement is not met. Conversely, Arb-Med is advantageous for those who prefer mediation with an understanding of the likely outcome established by preliminary arbitration.

Drafting agreements to include hybrid process clauses requires precision. These clauses should define the chosen process, detail the transition triggers between mediation and arbitration phases, and describe the appointment procedures for the neutral party or parties. Determining whether the same individual or different persons will conduct the mediator and arbitrator roles is crucial to prevent potential bias. It is also vital to establish how information disclosed during one phase will be handled in the subsequent phase, particularly concerning confidentiality. Ensuring that agreements unambiguously delineate the hybrid process and the procedural protocols provides clarity and mitigates the risk of ancillary disputes.

Situations where Mediation may be more appropriate than Arbitration

In some instances, mediation may offer a distinct advantage over arbitration, mainly where relationships between parties are cooperative or ongoing. This approach serves well in complex multi-party disputes, where a mediator’s role in facilitating dialogue is paramount. Moreover, mediation provides a confidential and respectful setting for addressing sensitive or emotionally charged issues. This focus on collaboration rather than adjudication helps preserve relationships, an essential consideration when the continuation and quality of future interactions are critical. Adopting mediation in these scenarios supports a harmonious resolution, maintaining the fabric of professional or personal relationships.

The Nuts and Bolts of Med-Arb

The Med-Arb process requires a disciplined and transparent methodology, transitioning smoothly from mediation to arbitration where necessary.

1. Initial Agreement: Parties must first agree to engage in Med-Arb and outline this commitment in a binding document. This agreement should detail the scope of the disputes covered, the rules governing the proceedings, and the selection criteria for the mediator-arbitrator.

2. Selecting the Mediator-Arbitrator: The parties jointly select a neutral individual who can act as both mediator and arbitrator. The chosen professional should have expertise relevant to the dispute’s subject matter and be skilled in mediation and arbitration.

3. Preliminary Conference: Before mediation begins, a preliminary conference establishes the procedure’s framework, addresses administrative matters, and sets the stage for an effective mediation phase.

4. Mediation Phase: During this stage, the mediator facilitates discussions between parties, aiming to reach a voluntary, mutual agreement. Ground rules are established to foster an environment of collaboration and openness.

5. Transition Point: If mediation resolves the dispute, the process concludes with signing a settlement agreement. Should mediation be unsuccessful, the process transitions to arbitration. Clear triggers for this shift should be outlined in the initial agreement.

6. Arbitration Phase: The arbitrator reviews the case afresh, considering evidence and arguments. The transition to this phase should be seamless, ensuring no undue delay. It culminates in a binding arbitration award.

Tackling Potential Pitfalls

a. Confidentiality Concerns: Establish clear protocols for handling information disclosed during mediation to ensure it does not unduly influence the arbitration phase.

b. Bias Perception: To counter bias concerns, particularly where the mediator transitions to an arbitrator role, the initial agreement should include a provision for appointing a new arbitrator if either party feels uncomfortable proceeding with the same individual.

c. Transition Resistance: If parties are hesitant to move from mediation to arbitration, it is crucial to have predetermined criteria in the initial agreement for what constitutes a failure of mediation and the consequent steps.

The Practicalities of Arb-Med

The following steps outline the Arb-Med process:

1. Arbitration Phase: The process starts with the parties agreeing to arbitrate. The arbitrator examines the evidence and hears arguments in a structured manner, establishing a factual base for the dispute.

2. Transition to Mediation: The arbitrator pauses the arbitration process before rendering an award. This pause is critical as it allows the parties to negotiate and seek a mutual agreement through mediation without the influence of the arbitrator’s tentative decision.

3. Commencement of Mediation: With the shift to mediation, the parties engage in a facilitated negotiation and are encouraged to express their interests and work towards an acceptable settlement for everyone involved. The focus is on open communication and creative problem-solving.

4. Conducting Mediation: The mediator guides the discussion, helping parties to identify common grounds and explore settlement options. The objective is to reach an agreement that reflects the parties’ needs and priorities, avoiding the need for an arbitral award.

5. Finalising Agreement: If the mediation proves successful, the parties draft and sign a settlement agreement. This consensus typically results in the termination of the arbitration proceedings.

6. Resumption of Arbitration: The arbitration process resumes if mediation does not yield a settlement. With fresh insights from the mediation, the arbitrator finalises the arbitral award, ensuring that the decision is based solely on the merits of the case presented during the arbitration phase.

Ensuring a Seamless Transition

a. Documenting Procedures: The initial agreement should lay out the procedure for the switch from arbitration to mediation, providing clarity on the rules and expectations.

b. Upholding Confidentiality: It is imperative to maintain confidentiality about the offers and admissions made during mediation to protect the integrity of the arbitration proceedings if they resume.

c. Preserving Impartiality: Strategies must be in place to prevent any knowledge overlap between the arbitration and mediation stages that could jeopardise the arbitrator’s impartiality.

d. Maintaining Flexibility: Parties should consider appointing a different mediator to facilitate fresh discussions, especially if the arbitration phase has been particularly contentious.

Best Practices for Dispute Resolution Professionals

Dispute resolution experts must master a suite of skills to navigate the nuances of mediation and arbitration successfully. Essential to their role is listening and communicating clearly, facilitating understanding and collaboration between parties. They must critically assess information, discern the crux of conflicts, and propose solutions that align with legal and ethical standards.

An adept mediator or arbitrator possesses a thorough understanding of the law and a deep appreciation for the emotional and psychological dimensions of conflict. They approach each case with an impartial gaze, ensuring decisions and guidance remain unbiased and potential conflicts of interest are transparently managed.

Ensuring procedural integrity is critical. Experts must establish and maintain a transparent framework where fairness is not just perceived but practised. They safeguard the confidentiality of proceedings, thus fostering an environment of trust and candour.

Looking Ahead: The Evolution of Hybrid Dispute Resolution

Looking to the future, hybrid dispute resolution methods like Med-Arb and Arb-Med are set to become even more sophisticated. Technological advancements promise to streamline processes, enhance accessibility, and improve outcomes. Artificial intelligence could soon assist in predicting dispute trends, identifying optimal mediation strategies, and even drafting preliminary settlement terms. As digital platforms become more robust, they will likely facilitate smoother transitions between mediation and arbitration, making hybrid models more efficient and widely accepted. This evolution will enhance the tools available to dispute resolution professionals, allowing for more tailored and effective conflict resolution.


To conclude, the strategic application of Med-Arb and Arb-Med is critical for modern dispute resolution. These hybrid models offer an adaptive and structured approach, which can result in expedited and amicable solutions. Professionals should consider incorporating these methods into their suite of services to provide clients with practical, bespoke conflict resolution strategies. Adopting Med-Arb and Arb-Med can signify a commitment to innovative and client-focused resolution tactics, setting practitioners apart in a competitive field. Take this opportunity to enhance your practice with these forward-thinking models and contribute to the progressive dispute resolution landscape.


The insights presented in this blog post aim to furnish readers with a broad understanding of arbitration within the context of global business. This material does not purport to provide legal advice, but rather serves as an informative resource. Specific decisions concerning arbitration and its relevance should always be made in consultation with qualified legal experts. Given the intricate variations and legal implications of arbitration across different jurisdictions, it is paramount to collaborate with legal professionals well-acquainted with the precise legal framework pertinent to your circumstances.

If you find this content valuable and have further questions, or if you require guidance on the detailed aspects of arbitration, please feel free to reach out to our dedicated team at We stand ready to guide you through these processes and address any areas of concern.

Isaiah Bozimo

Isaiah Bozimo


Qawiyyat Ibrahim

Qawiyyat Ibrahim

NYSC Associate

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