Parallel proceedings in international arbitration refer to the simultaneous consideration of related disputes across multiple judicial or arbitral venues. While not uncommon, this occurrence introduces layers of complexity, from rising legal expenses to the unsettling possibility of inconsistent outcomes. Additionally, the risk of conflicting judgments can pose significant legal and strategic challenges for parties. This blog post, part of our Understanding Arbitration: A Guide for Businesses series, demystifies the concept of parallel proceedings, offering readers a comprehensive understanding of their nature and unique challenges. Further, we will discuss anti-suit and anti-arbitration injunctions, two critical tools in the arsenal of legal professionals handling these disputes. We aim to equip you with the practical knowledge and actionable strategies required to address parallel proceedings confidently and effectively.

What are the Causes of Parallel Proceedings?

Parallel proceedings in arbitration emerge for several reasons. Differing jurisdictions often lead parties to seek redress in multiple arenas. For instance, when multiple contracts govern a single commercial relationship, there’s an increased chance that each contract specifies a different dispute resolution mechanism or jurisdiction.

Such scenarios pose considerable challenges. One notable concern is the potential for conflicting decisions. If two tribunals operating under different jurisdictions or rules reach different conclusions on the same set of facts, it raises questions about the enforceability and recognition of these awards. Furthermore, parties might find themselves bearing higher costs, facing extended durations for resolution, and dealing with heightened uncertainties.

This multiplicity strains the parties’ resources and tests the credibility and efficiency of the international arbitration system. Recognising the roots of these parallel proceedings is the first step towards managing, if not entirely avoiding, their associated challenges.

Anti-Suit Injunctions

Anti-suit injunctions are court orders that prohibit a party from initiating or continuing proceedings in another jurisdiction. Their primary goal is to safeguard the efficacy of arbitration agreements and to prevent the undue influence of conflicting legal systems.

The legal foundation for these injunctions often lies in the principle of ‘kompetenz-kompetenz,’ asserting that the arbitral tribunal has the initial competence to decide its own jurisdiction. Thus, courts are predisposed to preserve the sanctity of the arbitration process and prevent parties from sidestepping their contractual obligations.

Benefits of these injunctions include:

  • Upholding the integrity of the arbitration process.
  • Preventing wastage of resources on multiple litigations.
  • Shielding parties from conflicting judgments.

However, they’re not without drawbacks:

  • Accusations of overreach by the issuing court.
  • Potential defiance leading to contempt proceedings.
  • Risk of escalating inter-jurisdictional conflicts.

Applying anti-suit injunctions can lead to diverse outcomes. For one, they can successfully halt litigations in non-agreed forums, ensuring a more streamlined arbitration process. On the contrary, they can also become points of contention, especially if viewed as infringing upon the jurisdiction of foreign courts. It’s crucial to anticipate these outcomes and strategise accordingly to ensure effective dispute resolution.

Anti-Arbitration Injunctions

An anti-arbitration injunction is a judicial order that stops parties from starting or proceeding with arbitration. This tool can act as a double-edged sword, ensuring that only valid claims proceed while also having the potential to disrupt the primary intent of arbitration: a swift and efficient resolution of disputes.

There are several reasons why a party might opt for such an injunction:

  • Questioning the legitimacy of the arbitration agreement.
  • Arguing that the matter does not fall within the arbitration clause.
  • Disputing the jurisdiction of the tribunal.

However, this course of action is fraught with challenges. Firstly, it may extend the duration of dispute resolution, particularly if courts later reverse the injunction. Moreover, if another jurisdiction’s court favours the arbitration, the injunction-seeking party may confront issues related to enforcing arbitral awards or damages for violating the arbitration clause.

The broader ramifications are equally significant. Doubt over the reliability of arbitration can emerge, possibly making parties hesitant to select arbitration in subsequent contracts, wary of potential roadblocks.

The Risk of Contradictory Outcomes

Contradictory rulings from parallel proceedings jeopardise the reliability of dispute resolution processes. When two decisions differ yet arise from identical facts, it casts a shadow on the very essence of arbitration or litigation.

From a legal perspective, such differences pose challenges to enforceability. A party may struggle to implement an arbitral award in a jurisdiction with a contradictory judgment. Moreover, the question arises: which decision holds more weight? Does an arbitration award, with its global recognition under the New York Convention, supersede a national court’s judgment rooted in its sovereignty?

On the practical front, these inconsistencies lead to increased costs. Parties grapple with the core dispute and encounter subsequent challenges to each ruling. Financial burdens escalate, and the time spent in litigation elongates. Moreover, the continuing legal altercations might tarnish reputations as public scrutiny intensifies.

The ripple effects of these divergent outcomes are manifold. Businesses might face disruptions, mainly when judgments affect contracts or transactions. Trust between disputing parties diminishes, rendering future negotiations or collaborations tense.

Given these significant legal and practical repercussions, initiating parallel proceedings warrants careful thought. Parties must weigh the potential fallout and adopt strategies prioritising efficient and consistent dispute resolution.

How to Effectively Coordinate Parallel Proceedings

Parallel proceedings present unique challenges, especially when intersecting with international arbitration and litigation. A thoughtful approach is essential to address these challenges, promote consistency, and reduce potential conflicts. Here, we offer several strategies tailored to both contexts.

Strategies for Addressing Parallel Arbitration Proceedings:

1. Consolidation: Combining multiple arbitral processes can lead to procedural efficiency and more consistent decisions. This approach is particularly advantageous in complex disputes involving several parties or contracts. For a deeper insight into this strategy and its implications, please refer to our previous post on multi-party and multi-contract arbitration.

2. Similar Arbitrator Appointments: Choosing a consistent set of arbitrators across different proceedings can promote consistency in decisions.

3. Precise Arbitration Clauses and Agreements: A crucial factor in the success of any arbitration process is the clarity and precision of its underlying clauses and agreements. Parties are less likely to dispute terms or procedures if there’s a mutual understanding from the outset. A well-defined clause acts as a compass, guiding parties through potential pitfalls and grey areas. For more tips and guidance on formulating effective clauses, please refer to our previous post on drafting an arbitration agreement.

Strategies for Addressing Parallel Arbitration and Litigation Proceedings:

1. Stay of Litigation: If an existing arbitration agreement exists between disputing parties, one party can approach the relevant court, requesting a stay of the ongoing litigation. This respects the prior agreement to resolve disputes through arbitration. However, the requesting party must ensure that they haven’t engaged in any actions that signify a commitment to proceed with the litigation on its merits, such as filing substantive pleadings or defending the case. These actions are often referred to as “taking a step in the litigation.” While preliminary procedural actions like applying for a stay aren’t typically considered as “taking a step,” any substantive participation could be viewed as waiving the right to arbitrate, thereby complicating the resolution process.

2. Anti-Suit Injunctions: Courts have the power to prevent a party from starting or continuing litigation in another jurisdiction, especially if there’s an existing arbitration agreement.

3. Clear Contractual Clauses: Contracts that specify the chosen dispute resolution mechanism can prevent potential overlap between arbitration and litigation.

4. Complementary Roles for Arbitration and Litigation: While arbitration and litigation are dispute resolution methods, they can be tailored to serve different functions within the same overarching dispute, complementing each other to benefit the parties involved.

Imagine a significant international business transaction involving a technology firm from Country A and a manufacturing company from Country B. Given the cross-border nature of their deal, both parties agree that any contractual disputes related to payment, quality of goods, or delivery timelines will be settled through arbitration, considering it a faster and more confidential method. This is especially valuable for them because their industries are highly competitive, and public disputes might damage their reputations.

However, they also agree that any disputes related to intellectual property rights or patent infringements, which might arise due to the technology sharing involved in their collaboration, will be settled through litigation in Country A’s courts. They choose this because IP rights and patent laws are complex, specific to jurisdictions, and might require the extensive involvement of courts to enforce any decisions, especially if third parties are involved or if there’s a need for injunctions against other entities.

5. Transparent Communication: Open dialogue is crucial to manage arbitration and litigation efficiently. But what if one party remains uncooperative or intentionally obstructive?

Consider a scenario involving two businesses in a contractual dispute. Business A wishes for a swift resolution and is open to both arbitration and litigation, depending on the nature of the disagreement. However, Business B perceives delay as advantageous and becomes deliberately recalcitrant, avoiding scheduled meetings, not producing required documents in time, or being non-responsive to communications.

In such a situation, transparent communication becomes even more vital. Business A can:

a. Document all communication attempts and responses, creating a record of Business B’s obstructive behaviour.

b. Seek interim measures or sanctions from the arbitral tribunal or the court to compel cooperation.

c. Engage in third-party mediation to encourage dialogue and a more cooperative stance from Business B.

d. Consider alternative resolution methods if it becomes clear that the current approach is unproductive due to Business B’s actions.

6. Legal Counsel with Broad Expertise: Lawyers skilled in both arbitration and litigation can guide parties, ensuring their interests are protected.

For instance, consider a scenario where two businesses, Business A and Business B, enter into a contractual agreement. A dispute arises concerning the interpretation of a specific clause. Business A might prefer arbitration, valuing its confidentiality and speed, while Business B might lean towards litigation, believing it offers more stringent procedural protections.

If both businesses instruct lawyers with narrow specialities, they could find themselves locked in a tussle over the forum for resolution, wasting time and resources. On the other hand, if they both retain lawyers proficient in both domains, these lawyers can effectively assess the strengths and weaknesses of each position. They can provide a comprehensive view of the most suitable method, factoring in the specific nature of the dispute, the evidence available, potential costs, and the desired outcomes.

Furthermore, a lawyer with broad expertise ensures a seamless transition if the dispute starts in one forum (say arbitration) but later needs to transition to another (litigation) due to unforeseen complexities. They can navigate the shift without needing their client to find new representation, preserving continuity and maintaining strategic momentum.


Parallel proceedings in international arbitration and litigation bring multifaceted challenges. The primary concerns include potential conflicting outcomes and procedural hurdles. Adopting an informed strategy rooted in clarity of contractual terms and deep awareness of dispute resolution techniques is paramount. The outlined measures in this discussion provide practical solutions for stakeholders to address these challenges effectively. As international commerce advances, mastering the nuances of parallel proceedings will be vital for ensuring fair and efficient dispute resolution.


The insights presented in this blog post aim to furnish readers with a broad understanding of arbitration within the context of global business. This material does not purport to provide legal advice, but rather serves as an informative resource. Specific decisions concerning arbitration and its relevance should always be made in consultation with qualified legal experts. Given the intricate variations and legal implications of arbitration across different jurisdictions, it is paramount to collaborate with legal professionals well-acquainted with the precise legal framework pertinent to your circumstances.

If you find this content valuable and have further questions, or if you require guidance on the detailed aspects of arbitration, please feel free to reach out to our dedicated team at We stand ready to guide you through these processes and address any areas of concern.

Isaiah Bozimo

Isaiah Bozimo


Folashade Dosunmu

Folashade Dosunmu


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