Arbitration is a form of alternative dispute resolution where parties agree to resolve their disputes outside of court with the assistance of one or more arbitrators. The process is valued for its potential to offer a quicker, more confidential, and often less adversarial resolution to conflicts compared to traditional litigation.

A critical component of a successful arbitration process is the cooperation between the parties involved. Collaboration ensures the process runs smoothly, adheres to set timelines, and results in fair and enforceable awards. It minimises delays, reduces costs, and maintains the integrity and effectiveness of the arbitration process.

This piece aims to shed light on various intervention measures to foster better cooperation in arbitration among the parties. From pre-emptive steps taken at the outset to reactive measures employed in response to uncooperative behaviour, these interventions play a vital role in steering the arbitration process towards a successful resolution.

By reading this piece, you will understand the significance of cooperation in arbitration, understand the common challenges to achieving cooperation, and learn about practical intervention measures. Additionally, the piece offers a step-by-step guide to implementing these measures, along with real-world examples demonstrating the positive impact of successful interventions. The goal is to equip you with the knowledge and tools necessary to navigate through arbitration processes with a cooperative spirit, contributing to more effective and satisfactory dispute resolution.

Challenges in Maintaining Cooperation

Arbitration meets challenges that demand a strong cooperative spirit among the parties. Delays, whether in sharing essential documents or sticking to the timelines, can act as significant roadblocks. Miscommunication, arising from unclear instructions or lack of open dialogue, further complicates the process. Non-compliance with the arbitrator’s decisions or the agreed arbitration rules also poses significant hindrances.

These challenges can extend the duration of the arbitration process, escalate costs, and possibly compromise the fairness and objectivity of the outcome. It is vital to cultivate a cooperative approach to navigate these challenges, ensuring the arbitration process remains streamlined, cost-effective, and fair.

Consider a scenario where a multinational company and a local supplier are involved in arbitration to resolve a contractual dispute. The process hits a snag as the local supplier persistently delays submitting necessary documents and communicates its claims unclearly. These actions stretch the arbitration timeline, escalating the costs significantly. Due to the supplier’s lack of cooperation and poor communication, the arbitrator faces a challenging task. Yet, adhering to the arbitration process, the arbitrator moves forward with the available information and makes an award. However, the award may not accurately reflect the merits of the case due to the incomplete information. This scenario underlines the importance of cooperation, timely communication, and adherence to the arbitration process for a more accurate and satisfactory arbitration outcome. It demonstrates that a cooperative environment and clear communication are not mere procedural formalities but significantly influence the outcome, ensuring a fair and cost-effective resolution.

Pre-emptive Intervention Measures

Drafting Clear Arbitration Agreements

A sound arbitration agreement is the bedrock of a smooth arbitration process. It should articulate the rights and obligations of each party, detailing the scope of disputes, applicable law, and arbitration language. A well-constructed agreement mitigates misunderstandings and fosters a conducive environment for arbitration.

Choosing the Right Arbitrator

The arbitrator’s selection is vital as it profoundly impacts the arbitration proceedings. Opt for an arbitrator with relevant expertise, a reputation for impartiality, and a history of efficient process management. A competent arbitrator can enhance communication, adhere to timelines, and address non-cooperation effectively.

Setting Communication Protocols

Establishing clear communication protocols at the arbitration’s outset is a prudent measure to encourage cooperation. These protocols should define the mode and frequency of communication, submission deadlines, and document formatting guidelines. A well-defined communication protocol helps prevent delays, ensures timely submissions, and maintains a structured, transparent arbitration process. It also provides all parties with a clear understanding of the process, promoting cooperation. Incorporating provisions for addressing miscommunications and non-compliance within these protocols is beneficial.

Reactive Intervention Measures

In the previous section, we outlined pre-emptive measures to encourage a cooperative atmosphere from the outset. However, despite well-laid plans, one might encounter non-cooperation during the arbitration process. It’s at this juncture that reactive intervention measures come into play to realign the arbitration process with its intended goals. These reactive measures serve as a corrective course of action to address and overcome hurdles posed by uncooperative behaviour, ensuring that the arbitration progresses towards a fair and efficient resolution. Below are some reactive intervention strategies to consider:

Employing Sanctions

When a party shows reluctance to follow the arbitration procedure or demonstrates clear non-cooperation, employing sanctions becomes a necessary step. These sanctions can include monetary penalties or adverse inferences. For instance, if a party does not produce the required documents, the arbitrator might assume that the withheld information could have negatively impacted the non-cooperating party’s stance.

Seeking Court Assistance

Court intervention can significantly enforce compliance with arbitration procedures. Courts can instruct the reluctant party to comply with procedural mandates or even impose penalties for non-compliance. For example, a court might direct a party to submit necessary documents or provide testimony in the arbitration proceedings.

It is crucial to note that the ability of courts to intervene and the nature of such intervention can be influenced by the legal framework governing the arbitration, including the law of the arbitration agreement and the law of the seat of arbitration. In some legal systems, persistent non-compliance with arbitration procedures or orders of the arbitral tribunal may trigger court intervention, which could lead to penalties or other enforcement actions to ensure compliance.

Engaging Arbitral Institutions

Arbitral institutions are vital in managing arbitration procedures by providing a structured environment, established rules, and administrative support. These measures encourage adherence to arbitration procedures. In situations where cooperation is lacking, the institutions may have in place specific mechanisms to address non-compliance, although their ability to enforce procedural compliance directly can be limited. For instance, under Article 18.6 of the LCIA Rules, the Tribunal can decide on sanctions against a party’s representative for non-compliance after providing a reasonable opportunity to answer any complaints. This mechanism helps address procedural issues and ensures the arbitration process runs smoothly.

Technological Aids for Cooperation

Online Dispute Resolution Platforms

Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) platforms simplify arbitration processes. They create a virtual environment for handling disputes, enhancing accessibility and user-friendliness. They provide a structured setting for communication, document sharing, and hearings between parties and arbitrators. They can be customised to the procedural needs of each case, aiding in fostering cooperation throughout arbitration.

Efficient Communication and Document Sharing Tools

Modern communication and document-sharing tools can address common hurdles like miscommunication or document loss, which are crucial for a cooperative arbitration process. Secure messaging apps and cloud-based document-sharing platforms ensure prompt access to necessary information for all relevant parties. They also offer a traceable record of communications and shared documents, assisting in resolving any procedural disputes efficiently. These technological aids, when used correctly, foster a collaborative environment and contribute to a more efficient arbitration process.

Practical Implementation: A Step-by-Step Guide

Implementing practical measures from the onset can significantly enhance cooperation in the arbitration process. This guide provides a structured approach towards creating a conducive environment for arbitration. By having a clear arbitration agreement, maintaining open communication, and leveraging technology, parties can navigate the arbitration process efficiently. The following steps outline how to integrate these elements practically, promoting a cooperative and streamlined arbitration process.

Checklist for Arbitration Agreements:

a. Scope of Arbitration: Clearly define the scope of disputes subject to arbitration to ensure mutual understanding.

b. Arbitrator Selection: Detail a fair and transparent method for selecting an arbitrator to prevent disputes over neutrality and expertise.

c. Communication Protocols: Establish basic communication protocols to foster open and effective communication.

d. Mediation Requirement: Consider a mediation step before arbitration to encourage amicable resolution.

e. Cooperation Incentives: Include provisions for cost-sharing or other incentives to promote cooperation and compliance with the arbitration process.

Strategies for Effective Communication:

a. Regular Updates: Maintain a schedule for regular updates to all parties involved.

b. Defined Channels: Ensure there are defined channels for communication to prevent misunderstandings.

c. Adherence to Deadlines: Strictly adhere to response and document submission deadlines.

Utilising Technology:

a. Online Dispute Resolution Platforms: Employ online platforms designed for dispute resolution to streamline the process.

b. Secure Communication Tools: Use secure and efficient communication tools for seamless interaction and document sharing.

c. Digital Record Keeping: Ensure all communications and documents are securely stored and easily accessible.


This piece sheds light on the importance of enhancing cooperation through well-considered intervention measures in arbitration. The strategies provided serve as a practical guide towards efficient dispute management. Embracing these measures and applying the learned techniques in arbitration agreements and processes is crucial. This step will contribute to a more harmonised arbitration environment and significantly aid the prompt resolution of disputes. It is advisable for arbitrators, legal practitioners, and parties involved to adopt these strategies, ensuring arbitration remains a viable, efficient avenue for dispute resolution.


The insights presented in this blog post aim to furnish readers with a broad understanding of arbitration within the context of global business. This material does not purport to provide legal advice, but rather serves as an informative resource. Specific decisions concerning arbitration and its relevance should always be made in consultation with qualified legal experts. Given the intricate variations and legal implications of arbitration across different jurisdictions, it is paramount to collaborate with legal professionals well-acquainted with the precise legal framework pertinent to your circumstances.

If you find this content valuable and have further questions, or if you require guidance on the detailed aspects of arbitration, please feel free to reach out to our dedicated team at We stand ready to guide you through these processes and address any areas of concern.

Isaiah Bozimo

Isaiah Bozimo


Afolasade Banjo

Afolasade Banjo


Share This