In our blog post published on 5th October 2023, we discussed the outcomes and implications of an arbitration award. Understanding arbitration awards is fundamental for businesses engaged in dispute resolution. The award marks a decisive end to a dispute, outlining the obligations of the involved parties. These outcomes, by their nature, are conclusive and legally binding. Thus, businesses need to know the mechanisms available for challenging an arbitration award. These mechanisms are critical in ensuring the legality and fairness of the arbitration process, providing avenues for parties to safeguard their interests and uphold principles of justice and equity. In this piece, the 20th segment of our Understanding Arbitration: A Guide for Businesses series, we discuss the grounds for challenging arbitration awards, the procedural aspects of initiating a challenge, and practical considerations to bear in mind.

Grounds for Challenging Arbitration Awards

Understanding the grounds for challenging arbitration awards is integral to ensuring the arbitration process is fair, just, and adheres to the agreed-upon terms. This section highlights primary grounds upon which parties can challenge arbitration awards based on the UNCITRAL Model Law. It is pertinent to note that most modern arbitration laws mirror the provisions of the UNCITRAL Model Law, underscoring its significance and the ubiquity of its principles in international arbitration.

1. Incapacity or Invalidity of Arbitration Agreement

a. Proving Incapacity

A foundational ground for challenging an award arises when a party exhibits incapacity at the time of entering the arbitration agreement, as articulated in Article 34(2)(a)(i) of the UNCITRAL Model Law. Proving incapacity requires evidence that the affected party was legally incapable of entering the agreement or could not comprehend its implications.

b. Determining Agreement Validity

Likewise, the invalidity of the arbitration agreement under the applicable law – which may either be the law chosen by the parties to govern the arbitration agreement or, in the absence of such a choice, the law of the seat of the arbitration – constitutes a basis for challenge as per Article 34(2)(a)(i) of the UNCITRAL Model Law. Verifying the agreement’s validity necessitates a detailed examination of its conformity with the chosen legal framework, ensuring that the principles of justice and the parties’ intentions are upheld.

2. Improper Notice or Inability to Present Case

a. Ensuring Proper Notification

Article 34(2)(a)(ii) of the UNCITRAL Model Law specifies that the lack of proper notice regarding the appointment of an arbitrator or the arbitral proceedings constitutes a substantial ground for challenging an award. Proving this ground mandates a detailed scrutiny of the notification process and verifying its compliance with the established norms.

b. Addressing Presentation Issues

The same provision of the Model Law outlines that the inability of a party to present their case forms another significant ground. It is essential to scrutinise whether the arbitral tribunal afforded the party concerned sufficient opportunities and resources to articulate their viewpoints and contentions during the proceedings.

3. Award Beyond Scope of Submission

a. Identifying the Scope

Article 34(2)(a)(iii) of the UNCITRAL Model Law establishes that an award addressing disputes not contemplated by or falling outside the terms of the arbitration agreement is subject to challenge. Parties must carefully identify and articulate the agreement’s defined scope to ascertain whether the tribunal’s decision exceeded its mandate.

b. Separating Decisions

In cases where the award includes decisions on matters within and beyond the agreement’s scope, separating the decisions becomes necessary. The tribunal can uphold the part of the award within its competence and may sever and set aside the portion exceeding its competence.

4. Irregularities in Tribunal Composition or Procedure

a. Checking Compliance with Agreement

Article 34(2)(a)(iv) of the UNCITRAL Model Law states that irregularities in the tribunal’s composition or the arbitral procedure, which deviate from the parties’ agreement, present grounds for setting aside an award. Accordingly, ensuring compliance with the parties’ agreement and the applicable law is vital.

b. Aligning with the Applicable Law

If any element of the parties’ agreement contravenes mandatory provisions of the applicable law (i.e., the law chosen by the parties to govern their arbitration agreement or, in the absence of such choice, the law of the jurisdiction where the arbitration takes place), it becomes necessary to assess the alignment between the tribunal composition or procedure and that applicable law.

5. Non-arbitrable Subject Matter or Conflict with Public Policy

a. Assessing the Subject Matter

The arbitrability of a dispute for arbitration under the law of the seat is a crucial factor under Article 34(2)(b)(i) of the UNCITRAL Model Law. Arbitrability refers to the appropriateness of resolving a dispute through arbitration under the jurisdiction where the arbitration takes place. If the subject matter is found to be unsuitable for arbitration (non-arbitrable), it necessitates a thorough review of the issues involved.

b. Evaluating Policy Conflicts

Finally, Article 34(2)(b)(ii) emphasises that an award in conflict with the public policy of the jurisdiction where the arbitration takes place is also subject to a challenge. This ground calls for a careful evaluation of the award’s alignment with prevailing societal norms and legal principles, ensuring that the outcome adheres to the foundational values of the legal system.

The Process of Challenging an Award

1. Filing an Application for Setting Aside

a. Timing Considerations

Compliance with the specified timeline is fundamental when initiating a challenge to an arbitration award. Article 34(3) of the UNCITRAL Model Law stipulates that an application for setting aside must be filed within three months of receiving the award. However, parties must note that this time limit might vary, as jurisdictions adopting the Model Law can modify its provisions to align with their legal frameworks and practices. Therefore, consulting the specific arbitration statutes of the relevant jurisdiction is essential to ascertain the exact timeframe. Observing the designated timeframe is critical, as any deviation may compromise the legitimacy of the challenge.

b. Court Specifications

Determining the appropriate judicial forum is a fundamental step in challenging an arbitration award. Parties are directed to the competent court by the UNCITRAL Model Law, as specified in Article 6. However, it is imperative to note that the arbitration law of the seat designates the specific competent court. This stipulation calls for careful consideration on the part of the parties to verify jurisdictional competence and ensure the application for setting aside the award is directed accurately to the correct authority, according to the prevailing law of the arbitral seat.

2. Presenting Evidence and Arguments

a. Furnishing Proof

The submission of compelling evidence forms a critical aspect of the challenge. The provisions in Article 34(2) of the UNCITRAL Model Law delineate the criteria for furnishing proof. It involves diligently compiling germane documents and formulating cogent arguments to highlight procedural irregularities, the invalidity of the arbitration agreement, or conflicts with public policy.

b. Addressing the Court’s Queries

Proactively addressing the court’s queries is essential. Parties must be prepared to respond to the court’s questions, clarify uncertainties, and reinforce their stance. A coherent presentation of facts and legal principles is fundamental to effectively answer the court’s inquiries, ensuring a balanced case assessment. This approach contributes to a clearer understanding and accurate representation of the parties’ perspectives during deliberations.

3. Essential Documents for a Challenge

a. Gathering Key Documents

Challenging an arbitration award necessitates the assembly of specific documents. Parties must produce the original or a certified copy of the arbitration agreement and the disputed award. Additionally, relevant records, such as evidence indicating procedural breaches or correspondence affirming jurisdictional issues, should be prepared.

b. Ensuring a Complete Submission

Parties must ensure every required document is submitted. The court will base its evaluation on the provided evidence. Omissions or incomplete documentation can undermine the challenge. Hence, it is vital for parties to review their submissions thoroughly.

4. Court’s Discretionary Actions

a. Suspending Proceedings

Article 34(4) of the UNCITRAL Model Law grants the court the discretion to suspend the proceedings for setting aside, providing the arbitral tribunal with an opportunity to review their proceedings or rectify any discrepancies. This provision reflects the law’s balanced approach, aiming to uphold the efficacy of arbitration while addressing legitimate grievances. In light of this, parties must maintain vigilance and be ready to adapt their strategies to any changes in the procedure.

b. Allowing Tribunal Rectification

The court also has the authority to permit the arbitral tribunal to address and correct any grounds for setting aside the award. This empowerment enhances the tribunal’s capacity to amend any inconsistencies or procedural irregularities, thereby strengthening the integrity of the arbitration process. Parties must remain adaptable, modifying their strategies to align with legal mandates and procedural norms.

5. Consequences of a Successful Challenge

a. Annulment of the Award

When a challenge prevails, the award is often annulled. This result renders the award legally void, potentially necessitating a new arbitration process for a resolution. It is essential to note that the annulment arises from procedural errors, not the substantive issues of the dispute. Consequently, if the parties proceed to another arbitration, the dispute’s core matters can be revisited without being bound by the findings of the annulled award.

b. Remission to the Arbitral Tribunal

Sometimes, instead of outright annulment, courts may send the award back to the arbitral tribunal to address identified issues. This action allows the tribunal to make necessary corrections or produce an amended award based on the nature of the challenge and the court’s guidance.

Practical and Strategic Considerations

1. Assessing the Feasibility of a Challenge

a. Evaluating Grounds:

The first step is thoroughly examining the reasons for challenging an award under the applicable arbitration law. This stage involves a detailed check of all legal and procedural standards to see if a challenge is valid. A careful review of the arbitration process and the award is necessary to identify any serious mistakes or deviations from the law.

b. Weighing Costs and Benefits:

It is vital to weigh the costs against the benefits of a potential challenge. Parties must evaluate the likelihood of success and decide whether the possible overturning of the award justifies the resources spent. The effect on relationships and reputation should also be considered.

2. Ensuring Timeliness and Compliance

a. Meeting Deadlines:

Adhering to the set timelines is essential. Failing to meet the deadlines laid out by the applicable arbitration law could mean losing the right to challenge. Careful attention to and compliance with all relevant timelines are vital to maintaining the validity of a challenge.

b. Following Procedural Requirements:

Following every procedural rule is a must. Any slip in following the required procedures can lead to the rejection of the application. Knowing the rules thoroughly and sticking to them is fundamental for the legitimacy of a challenge.

3. Exploring Alternative Solutions

a. Considering Negotiation or Settlement:

Before opting for a formal challenge, parties should consider the potential benefits of resolving disputes through negotiation or settlement. This approach is often more economical and expeditious, preserving amicable relations between the parties.

b. Opting for Mediation or Other ADR:

Even after the tribunal renders the arbitration award, mediation and other Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) methods can still be constructive alternatives, provided all parties are agreeable. These methods foster dialogue and compromise, offering a more efficient resolution avenue and maintaining positive relations among the parties. When complications arise in challenging an arbitration award or during its enforcement, these alternative solutions can represent a practical approach, addressing the nuanced needs and mutual interests of the disputing parties.

Conclusion and Final Thoughts

We have discussed essential aspects of challenging an arbitration award, highlighting the importance of assessing the feasibility of a challenge, the need for timeliness, and adherence to procedural requirements. Additionally, considering alternative solutions has been flagged as a constructive approach, offering potentially quicker and more amicable resolutions.


Making well-informed decisions is central when addressing challenges to arbitration awards. A thorough understanding of relevant laws, procedural details, and strategic considerations is crucial. Parties should make decisions after carefully analysing the legal structure, the case’s merits, and potential outcomes to act wisely and in their best interest.


The insights presented in this blog post aim to furnish readers with a broad understanding of arbitration within the context of global business. This material does not purport to provide legal advice, but rather serves as an informative resource. Specific decisions concerning arbitration and its relevance should always be made in consultation with qualified legal experts. Given the intricate variations and legal implications of arbitration across different jurisdictions, it is paramount to collaborate with legal professionals well-acquainted with the precise legal framework pertinent to your circumstances.

If you find this content valuable and have further questions, or if you require guidance on the detailed aspects of arbitration, please feel free to reach out to our dedicated team at We stand ready to guide you through these processes and address any areas of concern.

Isaiah Bozimo

Isaiah Bozimo


Israel Ekpo

Israel Ekpo


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